New Castle Finished Drinking Water Quality FAQs

New Castle Finished Drinking Water Quality FAQs


The New Castle Consolidated Water District purchases its Raw Water from the NYCDEP through its connections to the NYC Aqueduct System.  Every year the Water Unit of the Town of New Castle DPW publishes an Annual Water Quality Report (AWQR) that summarizes the overall water quality of the drinking water in Town from the previous year.  These AWQRs appear on the Town’s website:  Once the Millwood Water Treatment Plant (MWTP) receives water from the NYC Aqueduct System; the Raw Water is processed through an extremely fine-tuned water treatment plant.  Basically the Raw Water is cleaned (by the removal of greater than 99.9 % of the particulate matter (turbidity) in the water while the water proceeds through two different stages of disinfection (ozonation & minor chlorination).  New York City residents, on the other hand, do not receive this highly clarified water.  New York City’s water is merely disinfected by UV treatment, without the benefit of filtration.




Can the Flint, Michigan water situation happen here?

The very short answer is an emphatic: NO!


Why can’t the Flint, Michigan lead situation happen here?

The Town of New Castle’s Millwood Water Treatment Plant (MWTP) receives its raw water supply primarily from the Catskill Aqueduct, which is fed by the Ashokan Reservoir located in the Catskill Mountains of upstate New York.  This raw water source is low in alkalinity and hardness making it extremely soft and corrosive.  Below are the annual averages for the raw water alkalinity, hardness and pH:


Alkalinity – 12 mg/L (ppm)

Hardness – 14 mg/L (ppm)

pH – 7.2



If left untreated, the corrosive characteristics of the raw water could corrode the homeowner’s fixtures and pipes that may contain lead and copper, and allow lead and copper to dissolve into the water.  However, the MWTP operates a very comprehensive three part program to prevent this corrosion from occurring. This program is detailed below:


First, a chemical called Blended Liquid Orthophosphate is added to the treated water before it enters the distribution system.  Blended Orthophosphate is a, food grade, corrosion inhibitor specifically designed to reduce lead and copper residuals at the tap and effectively minimize distribution corrosion.  Blended Liquid Orthophosphate is ANSI/NSF   (American National Standards Institute/ National Sanitary Foundation) approved product that also meets the AWWA (American Water Works Association) drinking water standards.   When the Orthophosphate is added to the finished water it forms a protective layer on the interior of the piping.  This protective layer acts as a barrier to corrosion, reducing dissolution of lead and copper into the water.


Second, the pH range at which the applied, blended orthophosphate is most effective for minimizing lead solubility is 7.4 to 7.8.  At the Millwood Water Treatment Plant we add Sodium Hydroxide to the finished water to raise the pH to 7.5.  The Blended Liquid Orthophosphate is added to the finished water at a maintenance dose of 3 to 5 mg/L (ppm) and a residual of PO4 (phosphate) 1.2 mg/L (ppm) to 1.9 mg/L (ppm) is maintained throughout the entire distribution system.  These maintenance dosages were recommended by the chemical manufacturer.


Third, as a control procedure, a daily analysis is conducted on the entry point water and a sample is taken every day from different locations in the distribution system for corrosion control monitoring.  Below are the average daily analytical results.


Finished Water:


pH – 7.5

Hardness – 2 mg/L (ppm)

Alkalinity -17 mg/L (ppm)

Orthophosphate as (PO4) – 1.60 mg/L (ppm)


Distribution Samples              


pH – 7.6

Hardness – 2 mg/L (ppm)

Alkalinity -18 mg/L (ppm)

Orthophosphate as (PO4) – 1.58 mg/L (ppm)


In addition to the daily monitoring, the New York State Health Department requires Bi-Weekly Corrosion Control Monitoring of the entry point as well.  Below are the averages for the first 4 months of 2016.


pH – 7.5

Hardness – 2 mg/L (ppm)

Alkalinity -16 mg/L (ppm)

Orthophosphate as (PO4) – 1.60 mg/L (ppm)


In addition to the Bi-Weekly Corrosion Control monitoring, the Westchester County Health Department requires the Town to collect 10 distribution water samples from specific locations, twice a year, for corrosion control analysis.  The samples are collected in May and September.  Below are the average analytical results for the samples collected in 2015.


May:                                                                              September:


pH – 7.8                                                                         pH – 7.6

Hardness – 2 mg/L (ppm)                                           Hardness – 3 mg/L (ppm)

Alkalinity – 15 mg/L (ppm)                                         Alkalinity – 19 mg/L (ppm)

Phosphate, as PO4 – 1.41 mg/L (ppm)                   Phosphate, as PO4 – 1.56 mg/L (ppm)




New York State Health Department regulations also require the Town to monitor their distribution system for Lead and Copper.  Thirty (30) samples are collected in June and the number of required sample sites is based on the population served.  The results of the 30 samples are placed in ascending order from lowest concentration to highest.  The number of samples are multiplied by 0.9 and the contaminant concentration of the number sample obtained by this calculation is the 90th percentile containment level.  Below are the June 2015 results for Lead and Copper. Typically more than 85% of the locations sampled were “non-detected” for lead.



Results of compliance monitoring for the 90th percentile:


Level Detected                                                                    Action Level             


Lead            2.6 µg/L (ppb)                                    15.0 µg/L (ppb)


Copper         95.0 µg/L (ppb)                                  1300 µg/l (ppb)



These results indicate that the Lead and Copper levels are well below the action level set by the New York Health Department and it clearly illustrates the effectiveness of the addition of  Blended Liquid Orthophosphate and the Town’s corrosion control monitoring. The Town of New Castle has remained well below and has not exceeded the action level for Lead or Copper in over 20 years; ever since the regulation went into effect.


In fact, the corrosion control monitoring program has been so effective that the Town’s water system actually qualifies for both a reduced number of monitoring sites from 60 per year to 30 per year, and the Town could opt for monitoring only every three years instead of yearly.  The Town made a conscious decision to accept the reduced number of monitoring sites option, but decided to retain the annual sampling & testing protocol to allow for a more complete evaluation of the ongoing success of the corrosion control program.




Notes:   mg/L (ppm) = milligrams per Liter or parts per million


µg/L (ppb) =   micrograms per Liter or parts per billion